National Institute of Neuroscience (NIN) has its origin in 1978 when Neurological Research Center was established with the aim of elucidating the pathogenesis and etiology of psychiatric disorder, neurological disorder, and muscular diseases and for developing therapeutic means for these disorders. It was renamed as NIN on the October 1st, 1986, when National Center for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP) was established. In NIN, there are seven departments for basic neuroscience research and seven departments for clinically oriented research as well as administration sections for experimental animal research and for experiments assisted with radioisotope. In the basic research departments, scientists are actively undertaking research by applying the methodology of molecular biology, immunology, morphology, biochemistry and developmental biology. Clinically oriented departments are engaged in the research related to neurological diseases, muscular diseases, psychiatric diseases and development disorder.